The term “algorithm” is ” A set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations” or ” A procedure for solving a mathematical problem in a finite number of steps that frequently by recursive operations.”

In its broadest sense, the term “algorithm” refers to a set of instructions for computers that tell them how to convert the facts of our world to valuable data. The facts are information, and the helpful information can be considered knowledge for individuals in machine instructions or the input to another algorithm. There are myriad instances of algorithmic processes, ranging from sorting sets of numbers and mapping routes to showing information on a display.

To understand algorithms, consider dressing for the day. Many people do not think about it. How do you record your method or explain how you go about it to a five-year-old? The answer to these questions in the most precise way will give you an algorithm.

## What are the Characteristics of an Algorithm?

One would not adhere to any written recipe to cook the recipe. They would follow just the traditional one. Also, not all printed instructions on programming are an algorithm. To be considered an algorithm, it should have these qualities:

**Clear and unambiguous**The algorithm should be unequivocal. Each step must be transparent in all ways and should only have one interpretation.**The Well-Defined inputs**When an algorithm tells you to take information, it must be well-defined inputs.**Well-Defined Outputs**The algorithm should clearly define the output to be generated and be defined well.**finiteness**Its algorithm has to be finite. i.e., it should end within a set duration.**Possible:**The algorithm must be primary, generic, and practical in that it can be implemented using available resources. It should not include any new technology or something.**Language Independent:**The Algorithm designed must be language-independent, i.e., it should be merely plain instructions that can be used in any language, and yet the output will remain identical, which is what we would expect.

## Properties of Algorithm:

- It will end at the end of a particular duration.
- It should yield at the very least one output.
- It shouldn’t take much more input.
- It should be deterministic in that it will produce the same output in the same input.
- Each algorithm step should be efficient, i.e., each step should perform some work.

## Types of Algorithms:

There are a variety of available algorithms. The most critical algorithms include:

1. Brute Force Algorithm: It is the most straightforward approach to solving a problem. It is the initial strategy to determine the solution when we encounter an issue.

2. Recursive Algorithm: A algorithm is built on the recursion principle. In this instance, the problem is divided into multiple sub-parts, then referred to as the same function.

3. Backtracking Algorithm The backtracking algorithm is essentially building the solution by searching for the many possible answers. With this algorithm, we make the solution based on the criteria. If a solution doesn’t work, we look back to the point of failure and construct the next solution. We continue the process until an answer or until all keys are considered.

4. Searching Algorithm These are employed to search parts or sets of components in the specific data structure. They may be of various types based on their method of operation or the design of the data in which the element is to be located.

5. Sorting Algorithms: Sorting is organizing a set of information in a certain way to meet the needs. The algorithms used in this task are known as sorting algorithms. In general, sorting algorithms are employed to sort data groups in a decreasing or increasing method.

6. Hashing Algorithm: Hashing algorithms operate like the search algorithm. However, they have an index with a crucial ID. A key can be assigned to particular information.

7. Divide and Conquer algorithm This algorithm splits the problem into more minor issues, solves one sub-problem, and then merges the results to create an overall solution. It is comprised of three steps:

- Divide
- Solve
- Combine

8. Greedy Algorithm: This algorithm’s solution is constructed part by part. The solution of the following function is built based on the immediate benefits of the next component. The most effective solution with the most significant benefits will be selected as the best solution for the following part.

9. Dynamic Programming Algorithm: This algorithm uses the previously discovered solution to avoid repeated calculations of the same issue portion. It splits the problem into subproblems that overlap and then solve the problems.

10. Randomized Algorithm: The randomized algorithm employs a random number, providing immediate benefits—random numbers aid in determining the desired outcome.

To learn more about the different types of algorithms, read the article ” **Types of Algorithms**.”

## Advantages of Algorithms:

- It’s easy to grasp.
- A algorithm can be described as a stepwise representation of the solution to any given problem.
- In Algorithm, the issue has been broken up into smaller chunks or steps, making it easier for the programmer to translate it into a program.

## Disadvantages of Algorithms:

- Writing an algorithm can take quite a while, which is why it can be lengthy.
- Learning complex logic using algorithms can be very challenging.
- Looping and Branching statements are hard to display when using Algorithms
**(imp)**.

## How to Design an Algorithm?

To write an algorithm, these elements are required as a prerequisite:

- The
**issue**that needs to be solved with this method, i.e., clear problem definition. - The
**limitations**of the problem have to be taken into consideration when solving the issue. - The input that will be used to solve the issue.
- Thethe
**output**is expected to occur when the issue is resolved. - A
**way to solve the problem**of this issue is within the constraints given.

The algorithm is then written using the parameters above so that it solves the problem.**Example:** Consider the model of adding three numbers and calculating the sum.

- Step 1: Fulfilling the pre-requisites

As mentioned above, the pre-requisites must be met to write an algorithm.**The problem to be solved with this algorithm**is combining three numbers and making their total.**The limitations of the issue that need to be considered when working out the solution**. The numbers should comprise only digits and have no other characters.**The input used to solve the problem:**The three numbers to be added.**The output anticipated when the problem is solved:**The total of the three numbers used as an input, i.e., a single integer value.**The answer to this problem within the constraints given:**The solution consists of adding three numbers. This can be accomplished using the “+” operator, bit-wise, or some other method.

- Step 2: Creating the algorithm

Now let’s create an algorithm with the help of these pre-requisites.

Algorithm for adding three numbers and generating their sums:- START
- Define three int variables: num1, 3, num2, and num3.
- Use the three numbers to be added together as inputs to variables numbers 1, 2, and num3 in turn.
- Create an int-int variable to keep the sum of three numbers.
- Add three numbers and store the result in the sum variable.
- Find the sum of the variables.
- END

**What algorithms are used by computers?**

Computer algorithms operate through both output and input. They process inputs and use each phase of their algorithm to produce work.

A search engine considers a query for a search as input and then searches its database for objects related to the terms within the question. Then, it outputs the results.

You can easily visualize algorithms using an illustration in a flowchart. The inputs lead to steps and queries that require addressing in order. After each flowchart step has been completed, the result generated is called the output.

**Automatization and algorithms**

This sounds easy enough; however, what exactly does an algorithm used to solve a problem? It’s a bit broader than that.

An excellent example of algorithmic processes in action can be seen in automated software. Automation is based on guidelines to accomplish tasks. The rules that are followed form an algorithm.

Therefore the automation software is composed of many algorithms for automatizing your workflows.

**For example**, w the routine tasks that you automatize require the automation program to collect all information about billing that is sent to you via email and then put it in an excel spreadsheet. To do this, you must set up rules and conditions that you want the program to adhere to – an algorithm.

In this scenario, the inputs are every new email that is received. Each email is analyzed in every step or rule to complete the job. This could include checking every mail for critical words. Emails with these terms will be moved to the next step, following each step to determine and then extract the relevant information. The result is the data which is then put in the spreadsheet.

**ALGORITHMS EVERYWHERE: IN MATH AND COMPUTER SCIENCE**

The algorithms are everywhere and all around us every day. They are a more significant presence in computer and math science. However, they can be found everywhere, as well.

For instance, when introducing algorithms to your kids, talk about meal preparation. Do you remember when we spoke about the similarities between programming and cooking? Then everything will make sense.

A recipe is akin to an algorithm because it’s a set of actions (written on a container or in the form of a book) to accomplish a specific goal. For example, you could follow these steps to get the box mix and make the vanilla cake.

Another example would be an item that is available from IKEA. Are you getting an idea of what you are looking for?

**ALGORITHMS IN MATH**

As per ThoughtCo and Deb Russell, an algorithm is a mathematical process describing the steps to solve mathematical problems. The use of algorithms is widespread in STEM disciplines, and the most well-known instance is a step-by-step process employed in long division.

The method to solve a math puzzle such as “What is 73 divided by 3” could be solved using this algorithm

- How many times can 3 become 7?
- The answer is 2.
- What is the remaining number? 1
- Then, put the 1(ten) before the number 3.
- How many times can three turn into 13?
- It is 4. an additional one.
- Of course, the answer is 24, with a remainder of 1

A math algorithm isn’t unlike an algorithm used in computer science or app development. Both are based on the exact definition, description, and importance.

**The origins of Algorithms**

The term ‘algorithm’ is derived from the form of Persian mathematician Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi. He was a renowned scholar and the most read mathematician in Europe in the middle of the Middle Ages, primarily through one of his works, *The Algebra*. In 825, al-Khwarizmi composed an Arabic treatise on the Hindu-Arabic numerals system; the book was later translated into Latin in 1100. The manuscript begins with the words ‘Dixit Algorizmi’ (‘thus spake Al-Khwarizmi’). It was released as a funny word game played by many”Algorizmi” was the translator’s Latinization for his surname; however, “algorism” also referred to the decimal system of numbers.

The word first came into use in English around 1230. It was later used by Chaucer used in 1391. The term was mentioned several times in late medieval Latin. It wasn’t until later 19th century that “algorithm” took on the meaning it does in the present. The mathematical genius’s Latinized surname became synonymous with the structured algorithmic instructions we use today.

While the term wasn’t commonly employed, the idea was utilized for a lengthy period. Many notable algorithms originate from Ancient times. For instance, the Eratosthenes filter used to identify primary numbers is an excellent illustration. It is a way of describing it:

- Make an array of consecutive integers ranging from 2 to the number you wish to examine. Let’s call it
*“n”*: (2, 3, 4, …,*n*). - Start at two and work to the most minus prime number.
- 2. The 2 number is the prime number. It is an integer prime and eliminates possible multiples for two on your list (2 4 8).
- Move on to the number you have on your list: 3. You can chalk it off as a prime and then remove all its multiples on your list (3, 3, 6, 9, 12, etc., even though 6 and 12 should already be released since they are twice as many).
- Repeat this until you get to
*the number*. Then you will have the list of all prime numbers from*the number n.*

You could be clever and improve the algorithm further. There is no need for you to get all *Of* these numbers. All you need is to enter *the number*.