What is Biochip? Know Everything About Biochips

Hey, want to know about “What is Biochip?” Then let’s explain to you. BIO stands for the biological body like protein, DNA, etc. CHIP stands for a computer chip. A small chip is designed to function in a biological environment, mainly inside a living organism. In biological science, biochips are microchip laboratories that may perform thousands of biochemical reactions simultaneously—a microchip analog to a silicon chip, whose modules are made from biological molecules.

With the help of biochips, researchers can quickly monitor large numbers of biological analyses for various operations, such as disease diagnosis, to detect foreign bodies that may be harmful. It is the result of computer science, electronics, and biology combined. 

In recent years digital microfluidic biochips have become one of the most promising technologies in many biological science areas. Many digital microfluidic biochips can be organized to function as a storage center, perform activities, and transport fluid drops. 

History of Biochips

One of the first portable biochips that were chemically based was born in 1922 by W. S. Hughes. The basic concept is to exchange sites for creating a permselective (semipermeable membrane and an ion exchanger) membrane to develop other ion sensors in the following years. James Dewey Watson and Francis Harry Crick 1953 announced their discovery of the famous double helix structure of DNA, which set the stage for genetics research that contributes to this date.

In 1977 Walter Gilbert and Fredrick Sanger developed the sequencing technique, enabling researchers to read the genetic code that provides information on protein synthesis. These chips are the size of a rice grain, small enough to get injected into our bodies. In pets, a biochip is inserted behind the neck while injected into the hands or forehead in humans. 

Components of Biochip

Biochips are made up of;

  • Biochip comprises a transponder and a reader. 
  • The transponder includes a computer microchip, an antenna coil a glass container, and a tuning capacitor.
  • Computer microchip stores a Unique Identification Number (UNI). UID is encoded through a laser and it contains an electronic circuit that transmits the ID number to the reader.
  • The antenna coil is made up of a coil of copper wire folded around an iron core. The antenna coil receives and imparts signals from the reader. 
  • The glass capsule/ container is made up of soda-lime glass. After the assembly is done capsule is sealed so that no fluids should get into the capsule.
  • The electric charge sends by the reader which then activates the transponder is stored by the tuning capacitor.  The capacitor is tune-up to the similar frequency of the radio wave sent by the reader. 

Working of Biochips

  • Biochip makes utilization of a radio frequency identification (RFID) system that makes utilization of low-frequency radio signals to communicate within a biochip and a reader. 
  • The reader carries a receiving coil.  That coils receive the transmitted data or ID number from the biochip. The reader differentiates with a database list of preregistered information.
  • This number is then differentiate with a database list of preregistered details.

Advantages of Biochip

  • You can easily find out lost people who have implanted biochips.
  • This biochip helps in recognizing a person’s unique traits.
  • It also helps sick people.
  • Keeps the ability to detect numerous agents in parallel. 
  • Just in a few seconds, they are able to perform thousands of biological reactions. 
  • Examines the health of an individual for which they’re particularly design. 
  • Boost the speed of diagnosis if unknown pathogens. 

Disadvantages of Biochip

  • Raise critical problems of a person’s privacy.
  • One of the major disadvantages is it ends human freedom, dignity, and self-respect.
  • The danger of turning every child, omen, and man a controlled slave.
  • Can get implant into one’s body without their knowledge.
  • Biochips are expensive.

Future of Biochip

There are many opportunities for growth in the biochip market, including those in hospitals, diagnostic centers, research institutes, universities, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical industries. Global biochip markets are expect to expand at a CAGR of 18% between 2019 and 2024. This market is driven by the growing adoption of personalized medicine, increased prevalence of immunological disorders and geriatric populations, as well as increasing applications of biochips.

  • Estimates of the global market for biochips: Market size estimates based upon value ($M) shipment
  • Trend and Forecast Analysis: Market trends (2013-2018) and forecast (2019-2024), based on segments and regions.
  • Segmentation analysis: The global market size for various applications, such as chip type, fabrication technique, application, material, and region.
  • Analysis of the global biochips market by region: North America, Europe, and the Asia Pacific.
  • Growth opportunities: An analysis of growth opportunities in different regions and applications for biochips in global biochip markets.
  • Strategy analysis: This includes M&A and new product development.
  • Porter’s Five Forces model analyzes the industry’s competitive intensity.
  • A chipset into the human body can be utilize as a combination of credit cards, driver’s licenses, personal diaries, etc. 
  • There are chances that it can give us some extra mental power. 

Types of biochips

Biochips are of three different types. The followings are the types of biochips:

  • DNA Microarray: – A DNA microarray might be a bunch of little DNA spots set on a robust surface. A scientist utilizes it to figure the articulation levels for a lot greater number of genes. Each DNA mark contains picomoles of explicit genes which are calls probes. These can be a brief segment of genetic material under high firmness conditions. Normally, probe-target hybridization is observe and counted by recognition of fluorophore or chemiluminescence labeled. This targets to work out the measure of nucleic acid series within the target. Innovative arrays of nucleic acid were macro arrays about 9 cm X 12 cm and in this way in the year 1981, the initially automated icon-based analysis was distributed.
  • Microfluidic Chip: – These biochips are a choice for basic biochemical laboratories and are changing a few applications. Applications like DNA analysis, biology procedures, and proteomics which is know due to the study of proteins and diagnostic of diseases (clinical pathology). These chips became more complex by using thousands of components. But those components are design physically call the bottom-up full-custom plan, which may be a truly enormous labor force.
Also Read: What is Brain Computer Interface?
  • Protein Microarray: – A protein microarray or protein chip method is utilize to follow the activities additionally as conjointly as associations of proteins, and to hunt out their operations on an average scale. The foremost advantage of protein microarray is that we’ll track an oversize range of proteins equal. This protein chip incorporates a surface for supporting such as a microtitre plate or bead, nitrocellulose membrane, and the glass slide. These are square measure automatic, rapid, economical, very sensitive, and devours less measure of samples. In the year 1983, the primary methodology of protein chips was present in antibody microarrays of scientific publications.  The innovation behind this chip was very simple to produce for DNA microarrays that become the first normally utilized microarrays.

Uses of Biochips

  • We can trace anyone as long as he inserts with a biochip. 
  • A biochip leads to safe e-commerce systems.
  • These chips are excellent to record and store credit cards, medical records, passports, etc. 
  • The biochip can use extensively in the medical field as a blood pressure sensor, detecting glucose, and oxygen sensor. 

This is all about Biochips. I hope you guys got a lot of information regarding the topic. Info At One always tries to serve you much information relevant to the topic.

Biochips: Applications

There are many biochips applications in the fields of biochemistry and microbiology, as well as pharmacogenomics and proteology. This is a partial list of biochip applications that can get in use for specific purposes, but it’s not exhaustive. Biochips are useful in screening analytes for biological warfare agents. They can also get use in drug discovery and drug design processes. This is not it, it can get use for molecular diagnostics for cancer and other diseases, as well as personalized medicine.

It will also be useful in the general detection and identification of various biomolecules within a sample. It also includes DNA, RNA, antibodies, antigens, and enzymes, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Some biochips can also get use in skin-on-a-chip applications.

Also Read: Why the industries are choosing to react instead of angular.

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