Do you know “what is brain computer interface?” Brain Computer Interface (BCI) or sometimes called Neural- Control Interface (NCI) or Brain-Machine Interface (BMI), or brain computer. It is an advanced direct correspondence connection between an external gadget and a wired brain. BCI differs from neuromodulation as it enables for two-way information stream. BCI is often monitored at researching, mapping, helping, or mending human intellectual or sensory-motor capacities. Because of the cortical plasticity of brain signals from these embedded prostheses, they can be handle by the brain like its very own natural sensor.
History of BCI
The history of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) begins with a German psychiatrist, Hans Berger, ‘s disclosure of the electrical movements of the human brain interface and the improvement of Electroencephalography (EEG). In 1924, by studying EEG traces, Hans Berger recognized oscillatory activity such as alpha wave (8-13 Hz). Between the 1970s, research started on BCI at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). To coin the term “Brain Computer Interface,” UCLA Professor Jacques Vidal was the first person. He produced the first peer-reviewed publications on this topic. In an experiment in 1977, Vidal portrayed his first application of BCI, which was the non-invasive control of cursor objects on a computer screen.
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How does Brain Computer Interface work?
As the computer’s power grows, so does the understanding of how the brain interface works also grows. And then we move closer to make something breath-taking sci-fi gadgets into reality. Now picture this, transmitting signals directly into someone’s brain that would allow them to see, hear, and feel some particular sensory inputs. Now think about being able to manipulate computers and heavy machinery with nothing but just a mere thought. BCI is a computer-based arrangement that obtains brain signals, examines them, and translates them into commands. They are then passing on to an output device to carry out the said action. In theory, any brain signal could get utilize as a means to control a BCI system.
How does Brain Computer Interface Control a Computer?
- To control a computer, you require to detect the electrical signals from the brain, magnify them, and then explain these into the same computer actions.
- EEG is the most typical equipment utilize by neurologists to record the electrical functions of a brain.
- The transmitted signals are then passed on to the BCI software which then makes utilization of machine learning algorithms. Algorithms that read the EEG data and match it with the provided emotions and actions.
- Till date, successful practices have been done by researchers to control robots in hostile environments.
Why is BCI Useful in the near future?
- Since BCI is a new and unexplored area, individuals are more curious to know what it is and how to utilize it for their advantage and where to utilize this new brain interfave technology.
- The most beautiful part of BCI is it helps in handling things remotely.
- It has additionally helped us understand the way how our biological neural network functions in real-time.
- BCI has numerous implications in the area of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Artificial Intelligence Neural Network Research and Developments.
- The late physicist Stephen Hawking was able to impart his genius thoughts by utilizing a gadget. That device can read the movements of his cheeks and synthesized his speech.
- Individuals who have a disability to walk/ move or no longer have neuromuscular control over their bodies.
- Individuals who have little neuromuscular control and suffer from muscle twitches and have confined eye movements.
Types of Brain-Computer Interface
There are three main techniques to measure brain signals. They are as follows:
- Non- Invasive:– The sensors are gets set on the scalp of an individual’s head to recognize the electric signals produced by the brain.
- MEG (Magnetoencephalography): – It quantifies the magnetic fields generated by electrical currents, utilizing very delicate magnetometers.
- PET (positron Emission Tomography): – It is a nuclear technique that gets utilizing to notice various tasks occurring in the body. Tasks, for example, digestion, synapses, bloodstream, and so on.
- fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging): – It is a neuroimaging operation done with the help of MRI that estimates different brain activity relevant to blood flow. It bases on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal exercises are gather.
- fNIRS (functional near-infrared spectroscopy): – It gets utilize to gauge brain activity through hemodynamic responses related to neuron behavior.
- EEG (Electroencephalography): – In this situation, Electrodes are set up on the scalp of an individual to pick up electrical current generated by the brain.
- Semi-Invasive: – The electrodes are now set up on the uncovered surface of the brain surgically in the dura or in the arachnoid.
- Invasive: – These are microelectrodes that directly get a spot in the cortex during neurosurgery and it gauges the movement of a single neuron.
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Advantages of Brain Computer Interface
- Without any strains, brain interface technology can help physically handicapped people move their prosthetics easily.
- With the help of telerobotics and help combat it, can allow military personnel to monitor any suspicious activity occurring through a distance.
- A BCI authorized car would be safe and can greatly help prevent accidents more often.
- It can help in converting visual images to the mind of a blind person helping them see images.
- Can help in converting audios to the mind of a deaf person helping them to hear.
- Allowing gamers to control various aspects of the game with their minds.
Disadvantages of Brain-Computer Interface
- The brain is a very complex organ and sometimes we cannot understand what we are feeling and what kind of situation we are going through. So in that situation, there are possibilities of the inaccuracy of results.
- BCI includes a connection between a few wires and a computer. It may often result in an uncomfortable user experience and the bulky nature of BCI. It acts as one of the major cons of this technology.
- Ethical issues may stop their early improvement.
- Electrodes that are going to be placed outside the skull can detect less number of electric signals from the brain.
- Electrodes placed inside the skull may create scar tissue in the brain.
- Research on BCI and its applications is still in its earlier stages.
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