What is Thyroid Disease? Know Treatment & Thyroid Diet

Want to know about Thyroid Disease? What is the cause of it?

If yes then read the blog carefully and know everything about the disease. 

The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland situated in the neck region. It is located at the front of the neck, right below Adam’s apple. It consists of two lobes. The lower two-thirds of the lobes are connected by a very thin band of tissue known as the thyroid isthmus. The functional gland of the thyroid gland is a spherical thyroid follicle, lined with the follicular cells known as thyrocytes and the occasional parafollicular cells surrounding the lumen containing the colloid.

These glands secret three hormones are the two thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine and thyroxine) and a peptide hormone (calcitonin). The metabolic rate and protein synthesis in children are all influenced by the hormones in the thyroid. Calcitonin plays a very important role in calcium homeostasis. Regulation of the two thyroid hormones secreted is done by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) which is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland. TSH is regulated by the Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) which is produced by the hypothalamus. 

The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland situated in the neck region. It is located at the front of the neck
The functional gland of the thyroid gland is a spherical thyroid follicle

History of Thyroid Dysfunction

In 1786, Caleb Parry first narrate this disease. The pathogenesis of thyroid disease wasn’t discovered until 1882-86. Thomas Curling was the first to describe hypothyroidism which is also known as myxoedema in 1850 and the cause for hyperthyroidism and the suitable treatment was accepted after 1883. Thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism was the prior execute in 1880. Radioiodine and antithyroid drugs were lead into existence around the early 1940s.

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What causes Thyroid disease?

Want to know what are the causes for thyroid problems? The two major categories of thyroid diseases are hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Both conditions originate from how other diseases impact the way the thyroid gland works. Let’s see what can cause thyroid disease:

Causes of hyperthyroidism 

  • Nodules: – When the nodules are overactive in the thyroid, it can be the main cause of hyperthyroidism. A gland with many nodules is called a toxic multi- nodular goiter, while a single nodule is called a toxic autonomously functioning thyroid module. 
  • Graves’ disease: – The entire thyroid gland might be overactive and it might produce too much hormone. It is also calls a diffuse toxic goiter or enlarged thyroid gland. 
  • Excessive iodine: – When a person has excessive iodine (it is the mineral that is utilize to make thyroid hormones) in his/her body, the thyroid makes more hormones than is necessary. Cough syrups and in some medications excessive iodine can be containing. 

Causes of hypothyroidism

  • Thyroiditis: – Inflammation or swelling of the thyroid gland is recognize as thyroiditis. It can lower the number of hormones produced by the thyroid. 
  • Postpartum thyroiditis: – After childbirth, this condition is identify in around 5%-9% of women. 
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: – Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is a painless disease and an autoimmune condition. In this case, the cells attack and damage the thyroid and it is an inherited condition.
  • A thyroid gland that is non-functioning: – This condition affects about 1 in 4,000 newborn infants when the thyroid doesn’t function properly. If it is left untreated, the child may have both mental as well as physical problems in the future. Therefore all newborns are prone to a screening blood test from the hospital to check their respective thyroid function. 

What are the Symptoms of the disease?

How do you know if you have problems with thyroid? Let’s see how to know if you have a thyroid disease. The symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism vary depending on the seriousness of the deficiency of the hormone. The difficulty tends to develop steadily, frequently over the number of years. The symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism might include: – 

  • Increased vulnerability to cold
  • Constipation
  • Dry skin
  • Weight gain
  • Face gets puffy
  • Muscles tend to become weak 
  • Cholesterol levels are high up
  • Irregular or heavier than normal menstrual periods
  • Impaired memory
  • Enlarged thyroid goiter or gland
  • Hoarseness
  • Stiffness, tenderness, and muscle aches
  • Swelling, stiffness, and pain in the joints
  • Fatigue
  • Slow heart rate.
  • Thinning hair.

Hypothyroidism in infants

Babies born with a thyroid gland that doesn’t work properly or an absent, may show some of the following symptoms and signs: – 

  • Whites in the eyes or yellowing of the skin (jaundice). This occurs when a baby’s liver can’t metabolize a compound known as bilirubin which naturally forms when the body recycles old or damaged red blood cells (RBCs)
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Hoarse sound while crying
  • Protruding tongue
  • An umbilical hernia.

The symptoms of hyperthyroidism varies from one person to another and these include: – 

  • Irritability or nervousness 
  • Trouble while tolerating heat
  • Trouble getting sleep
  • Weight loss
  • Mood swings
  • Muscle weakness
  • Fatigue 
  • Irregular and rapid heartbeat
  • Diarrhea or frequent bowel movements
  • An enlarged thyroid might cause the neck to look swollen.

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What are the Treatments of this disease?

Want to know what are the treatments for thyroid problems?

Following are the treatments for the disease: – 

  1. Radioiodine therapy: – It is the effective and most common treatment for hyperthyroidism. In this case, radioactive iodine is intake like a capsule or a tablet. This slowly destroys the cells that produce thyroid hormones in the gland. It does not have any other effect on other body cells. Almost everyone who has radioiodine treatment, later on, develops hypothyroidism. This happens because the hormone-producing cells have been destroyed. Hypothyroidism is easier to cure and does not have any long-term effects. 
  2. Radiation therapy: – If a person is treat with lymphoma or leukemia, that person might have undergone radiation therapy. Radiation used for the treatment of these diseases slow or halt the production of thyroid hormone. 
  3. Medication: – For around 1-2 years antithyroid medications need to be consume so that the thyroid gland will produce fewer thyroid hormones. In some cases these medications need to be consume for many years, though it is now a permanent cure, it is the simplest of them all. 
  4. Surgery: – Surgery can be performed to remove the whole or a part of the gland in some are cases. It might be considered an option for people with large goiters or pregnant women who can’t take antithyroid medications. If the disease takes off, the medications need to be held for the rest of the life. 

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What is the Diet for Thyroid disease?

Can thyroid problems be treated with diet? Yes, it can be. Let us see what is a good diet for thyroid problem

  • Eating a balanced diet: – It requires an adequate amount of iodine to function properly. 
  • Monitor soy intake: – Soy many obstruct the absorption of thyroid hormones. If a person consumes more products with large amounts of soy then the body may not be able to properly absorb all the medications. 
  • Never take thyroid medications with other supplements
  • Intake of too much dietary fiber can prevent the body from getting the proper hormones it requires.

This is all about the the dieses. Stay tuned for more health related blogs!

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